Ideas on Europe

Nadia Petroni


The Author

Nadia Petroni holds a PhD in International Relations from the University of Malta (2021). Her research interests focus on the diverse EU policy approaches to irregular migration and their impact on EU migration governance.



The Nice Treaty: qualified majority rule is postponed

Nadia Petroni |

The main objective of the Treaty of Nice, which entered into force in 2003, was to reform the institutional structure of the EU in order to facilitate the accession of ten new member states, an undertaking which was previously planned to have been accomplished by the Amsterdam Treaty. Nice, however, failed to make significant progress […]

The Treaty of Amsterdam: first steps towards a Common European Asylum System

Nadia Petroni |

The entry into force of the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 reshaped cooperation in justice and home affairs (JHA) thus marking a new phase in EU asylum and migration policymaking. A primary goal of the Treaty was to progressively establish an area of freedom, security and justice (AFSJ). Consequently, issues related to asylum, migration and external […]

The Treaty of Maastricht: issues of asylum and migration become ‘matters of common interest’

Nadia Petroni |

The Treaty of Maastricht (1993), which established the EU and introduced a three-pillar system of policymaking, formalised intergovernmental cooperation in the field of asylum and migration between the 12 EC states. The first pillar, also known as the European Community, was the only pillar with a legal personality and covered the vast majority of EU […]

The evolution of EU asylum and migration policies: Towards supranational cooperation?

Nadia Petroni |

European cooperation in the field of asylum and migration accelerated after the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 which involved a major overhaul of the founding treaties, establishing the EU and formalising intergovernmental cooperation in the area of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) under the third pillar. Subsequently, in 1999, the Treaty […]

The evolution of EU asylum and migration policies: historical background

Nadia Petroni |

Given that issues related to asylum and migration touch upon state sovereignty, the founding Treaties of the European Communities (EC) did not comprise any rules aimed at the ceding of competences from the national to the supranational level. The main objective of the 1957 Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (EEC), involved […]

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